What made you want to look for vertical matches? Please let us know where you read or heard it (including the quote if possible). The abovementioned restrictions may also constitute imprecise restrictions within the meaning of Article 101(1) TFEU. Article 101(1) TFEU prohibits agreements between undertakings which have as their object or effect the restriction, prevent or distort of competition within the EU and which concern trade between EU Member States. This prohibition applies to all agreements between two or more undertakings, whether competing or not. Article 4 of Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (the « Competition Law ») prohibits all agreements between undertakings which have as their object (or effect) the preventing, restricting or distorting of competition (or which may have the effect). Among the above types of chords, vertical chords are the most tested. Vertical restraints such as resale price maintenance (RPM), most-favoured-nation clauses, exclusive trade agreements, rebate schemes, non-compete clauses and reverse non-compete obligations have often proved their worth in the history of the application of Turkish competition law. In addition, vertical agreements seem to be more effective in business.
The most common vertical restraints are as follows: according to the block exemption and the commission`s current guidelines, the above restrictions would normally be understood as `hardcore`. The inclusion of a « hardcore » restriction automatically removes the potential benefit of the Safe Harbour block exemption for the entire agreement. There is more flexibility compared to other vertical agreements. For example, the following types of agreements are not considered « hardcore » within the meaning of the block exemption (they are called « non-hardcore »): the parties may include contractual restrictions or obligations in vertical agreements to protect an investment or simply to ensure day-to-day business operations (e.B. distribution, supply or purchase agreements). For example, a consumer electronics manufacturer could have a vertical agreement with a retailer under which the retailer would sell and promote the former`s products, possibly in exchange for lower prices. Such agreements could lead to the eviction of markets and/or the creation and maintenance of territorial restrictions. Similar vertical restraints may be covered by the prohibition laid down in Article 4, unless they are covered by a block exemption or an individual exemption. Vertical agreements are widely accepted because they raise fewer competition concerns than horizontal agreements.
Horizontal agreements are concluded between two current or potential competitors. . . . .